||DNA microarray analysis was used to profile gene expression in a commercial isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in a synthetic grape juice medium under conditions mimicking a natural environment for yeast: High-sugar and variable nitrogen conditions. The high nitrogen condition displayed elevated levels of expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of macromolecular precursors across the time course as compared to low-nitrogen. In contrast, expression of genes involved in translation and oxidative carbon metabolism were increased in the low-nitrogen condition, suggesting that respiration is more nitrogen-conserving than fermentation. Several genes under glucose repression control were induced in low-nitrogen in spite of very high (17%) external glucose concentrations, but there was no general relief of glucose repression. Expression of many stress response genes was elevated in stationary phase. Some of these genes were expressed regardless of the nitrogen concentration while others were found at higher levels only under high nitrogen conditions. A few genes, FSP2, RGS2, AQY1, YFL030W, were expressed more strongly with nitrogen limitation as compared to other conditions.